Childhood and youth among looms
Among looms, Antonio Claret lays the foundations of his life. He lives within a family dedicated to textile manufacturing and, at 17,he goes to Barcelona to specialize in this field, placing him in the center of the industrial boom of the nineteenth century.
Treaty of Fontainebleau. Napoleon orders the occupation of Spain. The musician Hilarión Eslava is born.
On December 23, Claret is born in Sallent (Barcelona). On December 25, he received the Sacrament of Baptism.
Peace of Tilsit between Russia and France. Abo lition of slave trade in the British Empire. Fulton's steam ship.
French occupation. Revolt of Aranjuez Fall of Godoy. Abdications of Bayona. Joseph I (Bonaparte), King of Spain Constitution of Bayona. War of independence begins against the invasion of Napoleon. Local Councils and Supreme Council. Battle of Bailén. Beginning of the separatists movements of the American colonies.
The delicate health of his mother obliged her to seek-out a wet nurse.
Napoleon's France invades Spain and Portugal. Great Britain and the United States abolish the slave trade in Africa. Birth of Napoleon III, future emperor of France.
Anti-French conspiracy in Barcelona.
First efforts towards independence in Bolivia. Austria revolts against Napoleon. Death of musician Joseph Haydn. British enact Hottentots' Code in African colonies.
Joseph I (Bonaparte) occupies Andalusia Beginning of the Court of Cádiz. The Supreme Court of Catalonia demands the restitution of the code of law. Governing bodies in America.
Establishment of provisional Juntas in Caracas (Venezuela) and in the provinces of Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay). Insurrection of Miguel Hidalgo in Dolores (Mexico). Simon Bolivar in Venezuela begins an independence war against Napoleonic Spain.
Abolition of seigniorial rights by the courts. Sacking of Montserrat.
On a trip to the country, while the relatives were collecting firewood, Anthony is caughtup in a fire. He succeeds in putting it out and remains unscathed.
Independence of Venezuela and Paraguay. First Luddite worker revolts in the United Kingdom.
Constitution of Cádiz, first Spanish constitution, of a unifying and liberal nature.
Sleeps little. Thinks about the wretched eternity of sinners. "Always, always." A very pious childhood.
Napoleon invades Russia. Franco-Russian war: war of Russian Liberation. The USA declares war against Great Britain. Great Britain limits working day for chil- dren to 12 hours.
Battles of Victoria and San Marcial.
Attends the school of Don Antonio Pascual. Learns the catechism by memory. Leads the recitation of the rosary in church and in his father's shop.
War of German liberation. Birth of philosopher Kierkegaard and musician Giuseppe Verdi.
Armistice and evacua- tion of the French troops. Return of Fernando VII, who reins till 1833. Manifesto de los Persas and the return of abso- lutism. Coup d'état by absolut- ist. Period of absolutistic restoration. Reestablish- ment of the Inquisition.
Receives Confirmation in Sallent, at the hands of the titular Arch- bishop of Palmira, Don Félix Amat de Palou y Pont.
End of Napoleonic empire. Napoleon confined to the isle of Elba. Stephenson invents the steam engine. On December 24 in Ghent, Belgium, USA and England sign a "perpetual peace" agreement. Birth of Russian anarchist Mijail Bakunin.
Spanish offensive in America, in an effort to recapture the colonies. Reestablishment of the guilds.
Return of Napoleon. Battle of Waterloo and exile of Napoleon. Con- gress of Vienna, in which Pope Pius VII gives back almost all the papal territories. Holy Alliance. On April 10, the 13,000 foot Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia erupts killing 50,000 islanders and shrouding the planet in debris. Birth of St. John Bosco on August 16.
Reestablishment of Spanish power in Venezuela and New Granada.
Congress of Tucuman and the Independence of Argentina on July 9. Shaka Zulu becomes chief of the Zulu in Africa.
Treaty with Great Britain. Victory of San Martín in Chacabuco (Spanish de feated in Chile). Slavery abolished. F. Cros creates in Barcelona a chemical products industry.
Receives First Commun- ion. Great love for Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. A tender devotion to the Virgin. He makes frequent visits to the Sanctuary of the Virgin of Fusimanya with his sister Rose.
Defeat of Spanish troops in the battle of Maipú, Chile.
On February 12, Chile attains independence from Spain. Birth of Karl Marx on May 5.
The United States buys Florida.
He begins to study Latin with Don Juan Riera. His father makes him an ap- prentice in the family business.
Simon Bolivar obtains the independence of Colombia. In England children less than 10 years of age are prohib- ited from working.
Riego military uprising in Cádiz.
First wave of liberal revolutions in Europe. Liberal revolution in Portugal and Naples. Belgrano creates the flag of Argentina.
First worker actions against machines in Alcoy, Alicante (destruction of textile mills).
San Martin enters Peru. Independence of Peru, Venezuela and the formation of the Great Columbia. Independence of Mexico. Iturbide proclaims himself the emperor of Mexico. Greek revolution.
Creation of National Mi- litia. Failed monarchical coup d'état. Sucre defeats the Spanish in Pichincha, Ecuador. First action of workers against the machines of Camprodón (Catalonia)
Congress of Verona. Independence of Ecuador. Brazil becomes independent. Birth of Louis Pasteur.
Intervention of the Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis of France. End of Liberal Triennium. Return of the absolutist (till 1833) (Ominous Decade). The French army occupies Barcelona (till 1827).
Absolutist reaction in Portugal. Monroe Doctrine in the USA. Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras organize themselves into the United Provinces of Central America. Death of Jenner, inventor of the small pox vaccine.
|Proclamation in Mexico of the federal republic, after the dethronement of the emperor. Union legislation in Great Britain. Appearance of the first unions (Trade Unions). Histoire de la Revolution Frangaise, by Michelet.|
The force of the Word of God leads him
The young Antonio wonders about his identity. Among many proposals for basing it on the progress and success, the Word of God moveshim, it relocates him and sets him on the path of following Jesus missionary.
Battle of Ayacucho (Peru). End of the Span- ish domination in America (only Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippines remain as colo- nies).
Travels to Barcelona to perfect himself in the textile arts. In La Lonja he studies drawing, grammar and French.
Independence of Alto Peru (Bolivia). Independence of almost all of Spanish and Portuguese America. G. Stephenson builds the world's first public railways.
Publication of the Manifestó de los Realistas puros. Beginning of the policy of tariff protec- tionism: protective tariffs.
Congress of Panama. Failure of the Bolivar project to create a United South America. First railway in the United Kingdom.
War of the Malcontents. Fernando VII visits Catalonia.
Is freed from the temp- tations of a bad woman by invoking the Virgin. Is cheated by an unfaith- ful friend.
First photograph of N. Niepce.
A house collapses in Sallent during a dance. 28 people die. Anthony had been there just before it happened. He is saved from drowning at the beach of the Barceloneta of Barcelona. Crisis evoked by the question "Quid Prodest."
Uruguay declares independence. Birth of Jules Verne on February 8. Hottentot Code abolished in Africa.
He is admitted to the seminary in Vic. He lives in the house of Don Fortián Bres. He makes a general confession.
Pius VIII is elected Pope. Louis Braille creates a system of reading for the blind.
Publication of the Pragmatic Sanction (allowing a female heir to the throne). Birth of Isabel II.
He decides to enter the Carthusians of Montealegre (Barcelona); but, a furious storm makes him change his mind.
Second wave of liberal revolution in Europe. Revolutions in France, Belgium and Poland. Independence of Greece and of Belgium. French occupation of Algeria. First passenger railway (Liverpool- Manchester). Creation of the National Associa- tion for the Protection of Labor in Great Britain. Showing of the dra- matic work Hernani, a play by Victor Hugo. Beginning of the publi- cation of the Course in Positive Philosophy by A. Comte.
During his second year of Philosophy he suffers a great temptation against chastity. The apostolic vocation is awakened in him while reading the Bible and the lives of the Saints. He joins various confraternices in Vic. He strikes up a friendship with Jaime Balmes.
The German philosopher Hegel dies. Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction. Notre-Dame de Paris, by Victor Hugo.
Foundation in Barcelona of the Bonaplata factory (first steam factory in Spain). Prohibition of importation of foreign cotton. First blast furnace in Marbella.
Receives tonsure at the hands of the Bishop of Vic, Don Pablo de Jesús Corcuera, and takes possession of the benefice of St. Mary's Church in Sallent. Finishes the third year of Philosophy. Stands out in science and mathematics. Begins Theology.
British abolish slavery in West Indies S. Morse invents the electric telegraph.
Death of King Fernando VII. Regency of María Cristina (till 1840). Start of the First Carlist War, confronting liberals and absolutists.
Division of Spain into provinces.
Receives minor orders at the Church of St. Philip Neri in Vic.
Abolition of slavery in the United Kingdom.
Royal Statute Freedom of industry. Definitive suppression of the guilds.
On May 24, he receives the subdiaconate at the same ordination in which Jaime Balmes is ordained Deacon. On December 20, Claret is ordained Deacon at the Church of the Presentation in Vic
Quadruple Alliance. End of Absolutism in Portugal. The Zollverein or German Customs Union formed among the majority of the German Confederation states.
Progressive uprisings in the cities. Álvarez Mendizábal, head of government. Dissolu- tion of religious orders (exclaustration). Popular uprising in Barcelona (burning of convents).
On June 13, in the episcopal palace, the Bishop of Solsona, Fray Juan José de Tejada, Mercedarian, ordains Claret to the Priesthood. On the June 21, in Sallent, he celebrates his first Mass. He is named parochial vicar and then administrator of St. Mary's Church in Sallent.
Birth of USA writer Mark Twain.
La Granja revolt. Laws related to the sale of Church lands and severance of ties (until 1837). Mendizábal begins sale of Church goods. Establishment of the business Nueva Vulcano in Barceloneta. First steam ship.
Lives a life full of ministerial activity. He lived in the rectory with his sister Mary in Sallent.
J. Ericsson patents boat propeller. Texas declares its independence from Mexico.
Progressive constitution. The Carlists reach the gates of Madrid. Moderates come to power. Definitive abolition of seigniorial rights and the tithe.
Beginning of the reign of Queen Victoria I in the United Kingdom (until 1901).
Foundation of the most important textile businesses in Catalonia (un- til 1847).
People's Charter presented to the British House of Commons. United Provinces of Central Americas dis- solved.
Vergara Treaty. Begin- ning of a new progres- sive period (until 1843).
In September, he travels to Rome to offer himself to the "Propaganda Fide." On October 2, he travels by boat from Marseilles to Civitavecchia. On October 6, he arrives in Rome. In November, he enters the novitiate of the Society of Jesus.
L. A. Blanqui, French political activist, calls utopian the contemporary social thinkers.
End of the Carlist war in Catalonia.
The Father General of the Jesuits advises him to return to Spain. On May 13, he is named regent of Viladrau. On August 15, he asked to be freed from his responsibilities to dedi- cate himself more freely to giving popular missions.
Explorations of D. Livingston in Equatorial Africa (until 1873). England produces the first postal stamp.
Missionary with a bundle in Catalonia and the Canary Islands
A Bible, a change of clothes and a map is all that contained the bundle he used to carry in his countless missionary journeys. Poor and on foot, he walkedacross Catalonia and the Canary Islands; all folks recognized him by his poverty, his friendly style and hismissionary passion.
Regency of Espartero. Abolition of the Basque privileges. Beginning of the demo- lition of the Barcelona citadel. Economic free-trade measures. Movements for the free association and organization of workers. Birth of federal republi- canism with Abdón Terradas.
On January 23, he moves to Vic to dedicate himself completely to preaching. On July 9, he receives from Rome the title of Apostolic Missionary.
Uprising of Barcelona against Espartero and the bombing of the city. Abdón Terradas pro- claims the Republic in Figueras.
Adverse political circumstances prevent him from preaching. In June, he is named vicar of Sant Joan d'Oló.
France begins the con- quest of Algeria. Treaty of Nanking, ending first opium war in China.
Anti-Espartero uprising. Isabel II is declared to be an adult, rules (till 1868).
The political situation eases. On March 1, he begins his intensive missionary activity in Catalonia. Publishes The Straight Path.
March 21, date of the end of the world, erroneously set by Ameri- can preacher William Miller.
Beginning of the Moder- ate Decade (till 1854). Creation of the Civil Guard. Creation of the Bank of Isabel II. Prohibition of workers' societies.
Preaches the month of May in Santa María del Mar, in Barcelona. A many crowd is moved to hear him. His missionary campaign continues with great con- versions.
The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti. Birth of Friedrich Nietzsche. Treaty of Wanghia establishing diplomatic relations between the US and China.
Moderate Constitution. Reform of state finances. Publication of El Criterio by J. Balmes
Missionary activity con- tinues. He establishes in Mataró the "The Spiri- tual Society of Mary Most Holy against Blas- phemy."
Annexation of the Texas territory into the United States.
Second Carlist war: war of the Martiners (till 1849): carlist and federal republicans against liberal unionists.
In Tarragona gets to know Don José Caixal. With him he establishes the Brotherhood of Good Books. In May he preaches the famous mission in Lérida. In this mission the people be- gin to calling him "Fa- ther Claret." Campaign of defama- tion begins.
The planet Uranus is discovered. Mexican- American War, annex- ation of California to the US.
Fusion of the Bank of San Fernando with that of Isabel II. Assembly of factories of Catalonia.
He founds the Librería Religiosa with Don José Caixal and Don Antonio Palau. In March, he retires to Vic. In August, he founds in Vic the Archconfraternity of the Heart of Mary.
Independence of Liberia.
Dictatorship of Narváez. Republican and progres- sive political parties. The first railroad in Spain between Barcelona and Mataró.
On March 6, he embarks for the Canary Islands from Cádiz. On March 11, he arrives in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and on the 14th he arrives in a Las Palmas and preaches missions throughout the Grand Canary Island. He becomes known as "El Padrito."
Third wave of liberal Eu- ropean revolutions. Parliament of Frankfort. Italian war of Indepen- dence. California gold rush. Communist Mani- festo of K. Marx and F. Engels. Declaration of Seneca Falls. USA- Mexico war ends, the USA acquires almost half of Mexico's territory (New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah and California)
Missionary Bishop in Cuba
Once consecrated bishop he remains missionary. With the staff of the Good Shepherd he visits his diocese three times. He delivers the bread of the Word, of culture and of human dignity. He is persecuted and shedshis blood to serve God and the poor.
End of the War of the Martiners.
On July 16, in a cell at the seminary in Vic, he establishes the Congregation. On August 11, he receives his nomination as Archbishop of Santiago, Cuba and on October 4, he accepts the nomination.
Independence of Hungary.
He is dedicated to missionary preaching while awaiting his episcopal consecration, which takes place in Vic on October 6. He is ordained by the bishop, Luciano Casadevall. On December 28 he embarks in Barcelona for Cuba.
Growth of suffrage movement (until 1900). Death of General José de San Martín, Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Perú,
Concordat with the Holy See.
On February 16, he arrives at Santiago, Cuba. On March 3, he visits the shrine of Our Lady of Charity of El Cobre. On April 2, he begins the diocesan pastoral visitation.
Napoleon III staged a coup d'état and seized dictatorial powers of France. First World Exposition in London. First performance of Rigoletto by G. Verdi
Foundation in Cuba of the A. Lopez and Company shipping company.
In October there is a great cholera epidemic. Almost 3,000 victims in three months. Claret visits hospitals, confesses, counsels, distributes alms.
Claret continues untiringly his pastoral activity in Cuba.
Crimean War (until 1856).
Uprising of progressives in Barcelona. Barcelona-Granollers Railroad. Military uprising in Vicálvaro. Popular revolt in Barcelona (July). Manifest of the Manzanares. Fall of the moderates. Beginning of the Biennial of the Progressives (till 1856). Economic expansion. Reorganization of worker movement (till 1856).
On February 15, he establishes savings banks.
Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
Law of Civil Desamortization of Pascual Madoz. Bank laws. Railroad laws. Blast furnace in Vizcaya. First national telegraph network in Spain. First general strike in Catalonia.
On January 8, he begins the Agricultural Farm of Puerto Príncipe. On July 12, he finishes a letter about the Immaculate Conception. On August 25, he issues the decree of the foundation of the Claretian Missionary Sisters.
Bessemer converter for making steel. Foundation of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). Alexander II named czar of Russia.
Fall of Espartero. Beginning of a new era of a moderate government (until 1868).The Bank of San Fernando becomes the Bank of Spain. Bank laws. Worker organizations return to clandestine existence.
On February 1, he suffers an attempted assas- sination in Holguín. On the 23rd he writes to the Pope putting his miter at his disposition. Pius IX suggests that he con- tinue in the archdiocese.
Birth of Sigmund Freud.
Royal Confessor and apostle in Madrid and Spain
Although he feels like a caged bird, the years spent in Madrid are of the most human, spiritual and apostolic maturity. His evangelising influence reaches throughout the peninsula and the Gospel permeates the popular culture of his timewith his writings and initiatives.
First modern census of the population: 15 mil- lion inhabitants. Revolts caused by the subsistence crisis. Moyan law regulates education. First Fontaine turbine to use the energy of water.
On March 18, he receives a letter from Queen Isabel II asking him to return to Madrid. On April 12, he leaves the island of Cuba. On May 18, he enters the port of Cádiz, Spain. On May 26, he arrives in Madrid. Is interviewed by Queen Isabel II, who has chosen him as her Confessor. On June 5, the official nomination arrives. In the fall, he gives various spiritual exercises in Madrid.
March 9, death of St. Dominic Savio. First India struggle for independence repressed by the British.
First government of the Liberal Union.
In May, he travels with the Queen to Levante; in July and August to Castile, León, Asturias y Galicia. On September 19, the Queen names him president of the royal monastery the Escorial. On November 1, he establishes the Academy of St. Michael.
Birth of Theodore Roosevelt.
War against Morocco for having destroyed their fortifications in Ceuta. Mining Law. Approval of the Cerda Plan for the extension of Barcelona. First immersion of the submarine Ictineo.
In May, he travels with the King and Queen to Catalonia and Valencia. On May 28, he presides at the First General Chapter of the Congregation. On July 11, he moves with the King and Queen to their summer residence in La Granja (Segovia).
Austria-Italian war. First oil well in Pennsylvania, USA. Publication of Origin of Species, by C. R. Darwin. On April 25, Suez Canal construction begins. Civil war between the Buenos Aires and the federal government.
Peace treaty signed between Spain and Morocco.
Birth of musician Isaac Albéniz.
In June, he finishes The Well-instructed collegian or Seminarian. On July 13, he is recommended to be Archbishop of Trajanópolis. In September, he travels with the King and Queen to the Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Aragón.
Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the USA. J.H.Speke and J.A. Grant discover the source of the Nile. Death of German philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer. Peking convention end- ing second opium war in China.
Expedition to Mexico. Expansion of the railway network (until 1867). Railroad from Barcelona to Zaragoza passing through Lérida. Fifteen thousand Catalan workers ask the Cortes freedom of association. Foundation in Barcelona of the Cultural Associa- tion of the Worker Class.
In July, he travels with the royal family: Valladolid, Palencia and Santander. On August 26, he receives an important mystical grace of the sacramental spe- cies in the Church of the Rosary, in La Granja.
Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy (Italian Unification). Víctor Manuel II, King of United Italy.
Notary Law. First Spanish sewing machines. Railroad from Barcelona to Gerona.
From January to May, he is dedicated, by obe- dience, to write his Au- tobiography, begun in the final months of the previous year. From July 7-14, he presides over the second General Chapter of the Congre- gation of Missionaries in Gracia (Barcelona). In September-October, he travels with the Queen to Andalucía. Continu- ous activity.
Bismarck, chancellor of Prussia.
England, France and Spain designate Maximilian I emperor of Mexico.
Established the "Congregation of Catholic Mothers."
Abolition of slavery in the United States. Construction of the metropolitan railway system in London (6km). Foundation of the Red Cross in Switzerland.
Railway from Madrid to Irún.
In July, he presides at the third General Chapter of the Congregation, in Gracia (Barcelona). Throughout the year he is slandered and persecuted by the secular press.
Creation of the First International (AIT-International Working Men's Association) in London. End of the war of Prussia and Austria against Denmark (Peace of Vienna).
Military uprising of General Prim.
On July 15, Isabel II recognizes the Kingdom of Italy. On July 20, he leaves Madrid for Catalonia. November 7 and 23, he is received by Pius IX, who is informed about Spain. On December 1, he arrives in Barcelona and on the 22nd by order of the papal Nuncio he returns to Madrid to continue his post as confessor to Queen Isabel II.
G.J. Mendel publishes his work on laws about genetic inheritance. End of the US Civil War. Abraham Lincoln assassinated.
San Gil barracks events. Ostende Accord to expel the Borbón Monarchy. Economic and financial crisis.
In August, he travels with the queen to the Basque country. In December he travels to Portugal. Preaches in Ciudad Real, Mérida, Badajoz and Lisbon.
War between Austria and Prussia.
Railway between Barcelona and Valencia via Tarragona. Birth of musician Enrique Granados.
On May 14, he travels to Extremadura and in June to Burgos. In October God reveals to him about the time left in his life: "two years and ten months."
British electoral reform. Dual Monarchy Austria-Hungry.
The final path towards Easter
After preaching in Paris and Rome, he feels that he has accomplished his mission. Sick, slandered and persecuted he renders his spirit on the cross of exile. He who sought to imitate his Lord at all times, in the end, he ranHis Easter path.
Military uprising of Admiral Juan Bautista Topete in Cádiz. September revolution that suppresses the Borbón Monarchy (fall of Isabel II). Beginning of the demo- cratic period of the Sexennium Revolution (until 1874). Beginning of the first Cuban war (the ten years war). The peseta, new Spanish monetary unit begun. Freedom of association.
On May 31, he submits his resignation as president of the Escorial, which Isabel II accepts on June 22. In August he travels with the King and Queen to San Sebastián. On September 30, the Queen is exiled to France. Fr. Claret accompanies her. He resides in Pau (France). On November 6, he arrives in Paris. Resides in the school of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Bourg.
End of the shogunate and triumph of the Meiji revolution in Japan. Discovery of prehistoric human remains, Cro-Magnon man. Patent of the typewriter (C.L. Scholes). Yangzhou riot-revolt against missionary presence in China.
New constitution, democratic, monarchic based on national sovereignty. Serrano, regent, and Prim head of govern- ment. Establishment of an agency for the Fomenta- tion of National Production Creation of nuclei of the International (Interna- tional Working Men's Association) in Spain. Catalan federal republicans propose a return to the Catalan-Aragon confederation under a republican state with a federal character. Protectionist campaigns. Establishment of the union: Las Clases de Vapor.
In Paris he lives a poor and simple life. March 30, he decides to separate himself from the court. Leaves Paris for Rome. On April 2, he arrives in Rome. Is put up at the rectory of the Mercedarians of San Adrián, at the Roman Forum. On April 24, Pius IX receives him. In Rome he is dedicated to prayer, study, writing, visiting hospitals, preaching. The book L'egoismo vinto (Selfishness con- quered) is published in Italian. On December 8, he attends the opening of the First Vatican Council.
Suez Canal inaugurated in Egypt. On December 8 First Vatican Council begins. Mendeleiev's Periodic Table of the Elements. First successful electric motor in industry (Z. Gramme). Birth of Mohandas Gandhi.
Strong growth in organized worker movements. First Congress of Spanish Workers, with the framework of the Inter- national, in Barcelona (Worker Congress of the Spanish Regional Fed- eration of the Interna- tional Workers Association). The thesis of Mijail Bakunin is adopted. Revolt against the obligation to serve in the military. Assassination of Juan Prim. Queen Isabel abdicates from the Spanish throne. Amadeo de Saboya, King (parliamentary monarchy). Death of Gustao Adolfo Bécquer.
He continues his participation in the Council. On May 31, he delivers a moving address in defense of infallibility. On July 23, the Council is interrupted. He arrives in Prades (France). On August 6, he finds refuge in the Cistercian monastery of Fontfroide, near Narbonne, where he dies on October 24, at 8:45 a.m. He was 62 years and 10 months. His funeral was celebrated with simplicity on October 27. His body was placed in a tomb in the monastery cem- etery. On a simple memorial tablet were engraved these words of St. Gregory VII: "I loved justice and hated iniquity; for this I die in exile."
Franco-Prussian War. Proclamation of the III French Republic. Italy occupies Rome. Disappearance of the Papal States. Principles of Psychology by H. Spencer. Death of C. Dickens. Tianjin Massacre, attack on Catholic institutions in China.