Childhood and youth among looms

Among looms, Antonio Claret lays the foundations of his life. He lives within a family dedicated to textile manufacturing and, at 17,he goes to Barcelona to specialize in this field, placing him in the center of the industrial boom of the nineteenth century.

YEAR
SPAIN
CLARET
WORLD
1807

Treaty of Fontainebleau. Napoleon orders the occupation of Spain. The musician Hilarión Eslava is born.

On December 23, Claret is born in Sallent (Barcelona). On December 25, he received the Sacrament of Baptism.

Peace of Tilsit between Russia and France. Abo lition of slave trade in the British Empire. Fulton's steam ship.
R. Morrison, first protestant missionary in China. Translated Bible into Chinese.

1808

French occupation. Revolt of Aranjuez Fall of Godoy. Abdications of Bayona. Joseph I (Bonaparte), King of Spain Constitution of Bayona. War of independence begins against the invasion of Napoleon. Local Councils and Supreme Council. Battle of Bailén. Beginning of the separatists movements of the American colonies.

The delicate health of his mother obliged her to seek-out a wet nurse.

Napoleon's France invades Spain and Portugal. Great Britain and the United States abolish the slave trade in Africa. Birth of Napoleon III, future emperor of France.

1809

Anti-French conspiracy in Barcelona.
Siege and occupation of Gerona and Zaragoza.

 

First efforts towards independence in Bolivia. Austria revolts against Napoleon. Death of musician Joseph Haydn. British enact Hottentots' Code in African colonies.

1810

Joseph I (Bonaparte) occupies Andalusia Beginning of the Court of Cádiz. The Supreme Court of Catalonia demands the restitution of the code of law. Governing bodies in America.

 

Establishment of provisional Juntas in Caracas (Venezuela) and in the provinces of Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay). Insurrection of Miguel Hidalgo in Dolores (Mexico). Simon Bolivar in Venezuela begins an independence war against Napoleonic Spain.

1811

Abolition of seigniorial rights by the courts. Sacking of Montserrat.

On a trip to the country, while the relatives were collecting firewood, An­thony is caughtup in a fire. He succeeds in putting it out and remains unscathed.

Independence of Ven­ezuela and Paraguay. First Luddite worker re­volts in the United Kingdom.

1812

Constitution of Cádiz, first Spanish constitution, of a unifying and liberal nature.
Battle of Arapiles (near Salamanca).
Annexation in fact of Catalonia to the French Empire.

Sleeps little. Thinks about the wretched eternity of sinners. "Always, always." A very pious childhood.

Napoleon invades Russia. Franco-Russian war: war of Russian Liberation. The USA declares war against Great Britain. Great Britain limits working day for chil- dren to 12 hours.
José de San Martín leads the insurrection in Argentina.

1813

Battles of Victoria and San Marcial.
Treaty of Valençay. Joseph I abandons Spain. Abolition of the Inquisi- tion.

Attends the school of Don Antonio Pascual. Learns the catechism by memory. Leads the recitation of the rosary in church and in his father's shop.

War of German liberation. Birth of philosopher Kierkegaard and musician Giuseppe Verdi.

1814

Armistice and evacua- tion of the French troops. Return of Fernando VII, who reins till 1833. Manifesto de los Persas and the return of abso- lutism. Coup d'état by absolut- ist. Period of absolutistic restoration. Reestablish- ment of the Inquisition.

Receives Confirmation in Sallent, at the hands of the titular Arch- bishop of Palmira, Don Félix Amat de Palou y Pont.

End of Napoleonic empire. Napoleon confined to the isle of Elba. Stephenson invents the steam engine. On December 24 in Ghent, Belgium, USA and England sign a "perpetual peace" agreement. Birth of Russian anarchist Mijail Bakunin.

1815

Spanish offensive in America, in an effort to recapture the colonies. Reestablishment of the guilds.

 

Return of Napoleon. Battle of Waterloo and exile of Napoleon. Con- gress of Vienna, in which Pope Pius VII gives back almost all the papal territories. Holy Alliance. On April 10, the 13,000 foot Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia erupts killing 50,000 islanders and shrouding the planet in debris. Birth of St. John Bosco on August 16.

1816

Reestablishment of Spanish power in Venezuela and New Granada.

 

Congress of Tucuman and the Independence of Argentina on July 9. Shaka Zulu becomes chief of the Zulu in Africa.

1817

Treaty with Great Britain. Victory of San Martín in Chacabuco (Spanish de feated in Chile). Slavery abolished. F. Cros creates in Barcelona a chemical products industry.

Receives First Commun- ion. Great love for Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. A tender devotion to the Virgin. He makes frequent visits to the Sanctuary of the Virgin of Fusimanya with his sister Rose.

 

1818

Defeat of Spanish troops in the battle of Maipú, Chile.

 

On February 12, Chile attains independence from Spain. Birth of Karl Marx on May 5.

1819

The United States buys Florida.
Queen Maria Luisa dies.

He begins to study Latin with Don Juan Riera. His father makes him an ap- prentice in the family business.

Simon Bolivar obtains the independence of Colombia. In England children less than 10 years of age are prohib- ited from working.

1820

Riego military uprising in Cádiz.
Liberal Triennium (till 1823).
Return to the Constitution of 1812.
Foundation of the Com- mission of Factories (Barcelona).

 

First wave of liberal revolutions in Europe. Liberal revolution in Portugal and Naples. Belgrano creates the flag of Argentina.

1821

First worker actions against machines in Alcoy, Alicante (destruction of textile mills).

 

San Martin enters Peru. Independence of Peru, Venezuela and the formation of the Great Columbia. Independence of Mexico. Iturbide proclaims himself the emperor of Mexico. Greek revolution.

1822

Creation of National Mi- litia. Failed monarchical coup d'état. Sucre defeats the Spanish in Pichincha, Ecuador. First action of workers against the machines of Camprodón (Catalonia)

 

Congress of Verona. Independence of Ecuador. Brazil becomes independent. Birth of Louis Pasteur.

1823

Intervention of the Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis of France. End of Liberal Triennium. Return of the absolutist (till 1833) (Ominous Decade). The French army occupies Barcelona (till 1827).

 

Absolutist reaction in Portugal. Monroe Doctrine in the USA. Guate­mala, Costa Rica, El Sal­vador, Nicaragua and Honduras organize themselves into the United Provinces of Central America. Death of Jenner, inventor of the small pox vaccine.

1824
Proclamation in Mexico of the federal republic, after the dethronement of the emperor. Union legislation in Great Britain. Appearance of the first unions (Trade Unions). Histoire de la Revolution Frangaise, by Michelet.

The force of the Word of God leads him

The young Antonio wonders about his identity. Among many proposals for basing it on the progress and success, the Word of God moveshim, it relocates him and sets him on the path of following Jesus missionary.

YEAR
SPAIN
CLARET
WORLD
1825

Battle of Ayacucho (Peru). End of the Span- ish domination in America (only Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippines remain as colo- nies).

Travels to Barcelona to perfect himself in the textile arts. In La Lonja he studies drawing, grammar and French.

Independence of Alto Peru (Bolivia). Independence of almost all of Spanish and Portuguese America. G. Stephenson builds the world's first public railways.

1826

Publication of the Mani­festó de los Realistas puros. Beginning of the policy of tariff protec- tionism: protective tariffs.

 

Congress of Panama. Failure of the Bolivar project to create a United South America. First railway in the United Kingdom.

1827

War of the Malcontents. Fernando VII visits Catalonia.

Is freed from the temp- tations of a bad woman by invoking the Virgin. Is cheated by an unfaith- ful friend.

First photograph of N. Niepce.

1828

 

A house collapses in Sallent during a dance. 28 people die. Anthony had been there just before it happened. He is saved from drowning at the beach of the Barceloneta of Barcelona. Crisis evoked by the question "Quid Prodest."

Uruguay declares independence. Birth of Jules Verne on February 8. Hottentot Code abolished in Africa.

1829

Trade Laws.

He is admitted to the seminary in Vic. He lives in the house of Don Fortián Bres. He makes a general confession.

Pius VIII is elected Pope. Louis Braille creates a system of reading for the blind.

1830

Publication of the Pragmatic Sanction (allowing a female heir to the throne). Birth of Isabel II.

He decides to enter the Carthusians of Montealegre (Barcelona); but, a furious storm makes him change his mind.

Second wave of liberal revolution in Europe. Revolutions in France, Belgium and Poland. Independence of Greece and of Belgium. French occupation of Algeria. First passenger railway (Liverpool- Manchester). Creation of the National Associa- tion for the Protection of Labor in Great Britain. Showing of the dra- matic work Hernani, a play by Victor Hugo. Beginning of the publi- cation of the Course in Positive Philosophy by A. Comte.
Gregory XVI is elected Pope.
Death of Simon Bolivar.

1831

 

During his second year of Philosophy he suffers a great temptation against chastity. The apostolic vocation is awakened in him while reading the Bible and the lives of the Saints. He joins various confra­ternices in Vic. He strikes up a friendship with Jaime Balmes.

The German philosopher Hegel dies. Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction. Notre-Dame de Paris, by Victor Hugo.

1832

Foundation in Barcelona of the Bonaplata factory (first steam factory in Spain). Prohibition of importation of foreign cotton. First blast furnace in Marbella.

Receives tonsure at the hands of the Bishop of Vic, Don Pablo de Jesús Corcuera, and takes possession of the benefice of St. Mary's Church in Sallent. Finishes the third year of Philosophy. Stands out in science and mathematics. Begins Theology.

British abolish slavery in West Indies S. Morse invents the electric telegraph.

1833

Death of King Fernando VII. Regency of María Cristina (till 1840). Start of the First Carlist War, confronting liberals and absolutists. Division of Spain into provinces.
Cholera epidemic. First great wave of Catalan industry. Begin- ning of the Renaixenga catalana.

Receives minor orders at the Church of St. Philip Neri in Vic.

Abolition of slavery in the United Kingdom.

1834

Royal Statute Freedom of industry. Definitive suppression of the guilds.

On May 24, he receives the subdiaconate at the same ordination in which Jaime Balmes is ordained Deacon. On December 20, Claret is ordained Deacon at the Church of the Presentation in Vic

Quadruple Alliance. End of Absolutism in Portugal. The Zollverein or German Customs Union formed among the majority of the German Confederation states.

1835

Progressive uprisings in the cities. Álvarez Mendizábal, head of government. Dissolu- tion of religious orders (exclaustration). Popular uprising in Barcelona (burning of convents).

On June 13, in the episcopal palace, the Bishop of Solsona, Fray Juan José de Tejada, Mercedarian, ordains Claret to the Priesthood. On the June 21, in Sallent, he celebrates his first Mass. He is named parochial vicar and then administrator of St. Mary's Church in Sallent.

Birth of USA writer Mark Twain.

1836

La Granja revolt. Laws related to the sale of Church lands and severance of ties (until 1837). Mendizábal begins sale of Church goods. Establishment of the business Nueva Vulcano in Barceloneta. First steam ship.

Lives a life full of ministerial activity. He lived in the rectory with his sister Mary in Sallent.

J. Ericsson patents boat propeller. Texas declares its independence from Mexico.

1837

Progressive constitution. The Carlists reach the gates of Madrid. Moderates come to power. Definitive abolition of seigniorial rights and the tithe.

 

Beginning of the reign of Queen Victoria I in the United Kingdom (until 1901).

1838

Foundation of the most important textile businesses in Catalonia (un- til 1847).

 

People's Charter presented to the British House of Commons. United Provinces of Central Americas dis- solved.

1839

Vergara Treaty. Begin- ning of a new progres- sive period (until 1843).

In September, he travels to Rome to offer himself to the "Propaganda Fide." On October 2, he travels by boat from Marseilles to Civitavecchia. On October 6, he arrives in Rome. In November, he enters the novitiate of the Society of Jesus.

L. A. Blanqui, French political activist, calls utopian the contemporary social thinkers.

1840

End of the Carlist war in Catalonia.
Law of Municipal Governments. Constitution in Barcelona of the Association of Weavers (first worker association). Espartero Government. Exile of Queen Maria Cristina.

The Father General of the Jesuits advises him to return to Spain. On May 13, he is named regent of Viladrau. On August 15, he asked to be freed from his responsibilities to dedi- cate himself more freely to giving popular missions.

Explorations of D. Livingston in Equatorial Africa (until 1873). England produces the first postal stamp.

Missionary with a bundle in Catalonia and the Canary Islands

A Bible, a change of clothes and a map is all that contained the bundle he used to carry in his countless missionary journeys. Poor and on foot, he walkedacross Catalonia and the Canary Islands; all folks recognized him by his poverty, his friendly style and hismissionary passion.

YEAR
SPAIN
CLARET
WORLD
1841

Regency of Espartero. Abolition of the Basque privileges. Beginning of the demo- lition of the Barcelona citadel. Economic free-trade measures. Movements for the free association and organization of workers. Birth of federal republi- canism with Abdón Terradas.

On January 23, he moves to Vic to dedicate himself completely to preaching. On July 9, he receives from Rome the title of Apostolic Missionary.

 

1842

Uprising of Barcelona against Espartero and the bombing of the city. Abdón Terradas pro- claims the Republic in Figueras.
Foundation of the Catalan society for gas lighting.

Adverse political circumstances prevent him from preaching. In June, he is named vicar of Sant Joan d'Oló.

France begins the con- quest of Algeria. Treaty of Nanking, ending first opium war in China.

1843

Anti-Espartero uprising. Isabel II is declared to be an adult, rules (till 1868).

The political situation eases. On March 1, he begins his intensive missionary activity in Catalonia. Publishes The Straight Path.

March 21, date of the end of the world, erroneously set by Ameri- can preacher William Miller.

1844

Beginning of the Moder- ate Decade (till 1854). Creation of the Civil Guard. Creation of the Bank of Isabel II. Prohibition of workers' societies.

Preaches the month of May in Santa María del Mar, in Barcelona. A many crowd is moved to hear him. His missionary campaign continues with great con- versions.

The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti. Birth of Friedrich Nietzsche. Treaty of Wanghia establishing diplomatic relations between the US and China.

1845

Moderate Constitution. Reform of state finances. Publication of El Criterio by J. Balmes

Missionary activity con- tinues. He establishes in Mataró the "The Spiri- tual Society of Mary Most Holy against Blas- phemy."

Annexation of the Texas territory into the United States.

1846

Second Carlist war: war of the Martiners (till 1849): carlist and federal republicans against liberal unionists.

In Tarragona gets to know Don José Caixal. With him he establishes the Brotherhood of Good Books. In May he preaches the famous mission in Lérida. In this mission the people be- gin to calling him "Fa- ther Claret." Campaign of defama- tion begins.

The planet Uranus is discovered. Mexican- American War, annex- ation of California to the US.
Pius IX is elected Pope. His pontificate lasts un- til 1878.
Polish author, He